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Handbook of Muscle Variations and Anomalies in Humans. A Compendium for Medical Education, Physicians, Surgeons, Anthropologists, Anatomists, and Biologists

ISBN: 9780367538637
ISBN: 9780367538637
Διαστάσεις 28 × 21 cm



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Most textbooks and atlases of human anatomy chronicle only a few cases of muscle variations in the “normal” human population, or of muscle anomalies within congenital malformations. Consequently, there is a misconception of what is considered “normal” human anatomy and what that looks like. Each person within the “normal” population has at least a few muscle variations, and there are millions of individuals born globally each year with muscle anomalies. There are crucial knowledge gaps between what is taught, what students learn, what textbooks and atlases show, and what truly happens in nature and within our species. This handbook fills this gap by: 1) providing a comparative evolutionary context for muscle variations and defects in humans, 2) summarizing the major types of variations and anomalies found in humans, and 3) including didactic figures for a visually engaging learning experience. This book is of interest to students, professors, and researchers in biological anthropology, comparative anatomy, functional morphology, zoology, and evolutionary and developmental biology, as well as to clinicians and practicing health professionals.


Key Features

    • Summarizes most recorded variations and anomalies for each muscle in the human body
    • Provides information on the comparative anatomy of each muscle, including evolutionary differences from our closest living relatives, the apes
    • Includes didactic illustrations of the variations and anomalies for a visually engaging learning experience
    • Comprehensively reviews literature to document prevalence information for each variation and anomaly, within humans


Related Titles

Brown, D. E. Human Biological Diversity, 2nd ed. (ISBN 978-1-138-03753-3)

Diogo, R., et al. Understanding Human Anatomy and Pathology: An Evolutionary and Developmental Guide for Medical Students (ISBN 978-1-4987-5384-5)

Diogo, R. Muscles of Chordates: Development, Homologies, and Evolution (ISBN 978-1-138-57116-7)


Table of Contents with Contributors



Extended table of contents listing individual muscles

1. Introduction

Eve K. Boyle, Vondel Mahon, and Rui Diogo

1.1 Why do humans have anatomical variations and anomalies?

1.2 Towards a more holistic approach to human anatomy and evolution

1.3 Brief notes about our methodology


2. Head and neck muscles

Eve K. Boyle, Vondel Mahon, Rui Diogo, Warrenkevin Henderson, Hannah Jacobson, Noelle Purcell and Kylar Wiltz

2.1 Facial muscles

2.2 Muscles of mastication

2.3 Extrinsic muscles of the ear and middle ear muscles

2.4 Muscles of the tongue

2.5 Muscles of the soft palate

2.6 Pharyngeal muscles

2.7 Laryngeal muscles

2.8 Infrahyoid muscles

2.9 Suprahyoid muscles

2.10 Extraocular muscles

2.11 Scalene, prevertebral, and suboccipital muscles

2.12 Posterolateral neck muscles


3. Upper limb muscles

Eve K. Boyle, Vondel Mahon, and Rui Diogo

3.1 Axial pectoral girdle muscles

3.2 Pectoral girdle and arm muscles

3.3 Anterior forearm muscles

3.4 Posterior forearm muscles

3.5 Muscles of the hand


4. Trunk muscles

Eve K. Boyle, Vondel Mahon, Rui Diogo and Rowan Sherwood

4.1 Muscles of the abdominal region

4.2 Perineal, coccygeal, and anal musculature

4.3 Thorax, spine, and back muscles


5. Lower limb muscles

Eve K. Boyle, Vondel Mahon, Rui Diogo and Malynda Williams

5.1 Gluteal and thigh muscles

5.2 Posterior muscles of the lower leg

5.3 Anterior and lateral muscles of the lower leg

5.4 Muscles of the foot


6. References


7. Index