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Lehne’s Pharmacology for Nursing Care, 12th Edition

ISBN: 9780443107108
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Διαστάσεις 28 × 22 cm
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Ημ. Έκδοσης

2024/03

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1496

Έκδοση

12η έκδοση

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118,00€(Περιλαμβάνεται ΦΠΑ 6%)

Διαθεσιμότητα: 11-14 ημέρες

Περιγραφή

Master an understanding of pharmacology — and apply that understanding to nursing practice! With an engaging approach that actually makes learning nursing pharmacology enjoyable, Lehne’s Pharmacology for Nursing Care, 12th Edition makes it easier to understand difficult pharmacologic principles and the clinical use of drugs. The book discusses physiology and pathophysiology for each of the major drug families, using drug prototypes to simplify learning. What’s more, it focuses your attention on the most important content, limiting discussions of drug interactions and adverse effects to those that matter most. Written by nursing educators Jacqueline Rosenjack Burchum and Laura D. Rosenthal, this text emphasizes the understanding of drugs and drug therapy as opposed to simply memorizing drug facts.

New to this edition

  • NEW! Updated drug content includes the latest FDA drug approvals, withdrawals, and therapeutic uses, along with updated nursing content.
  • NEW Transgender Health chapter covers gender-affirming hormone treatment for transgender patients.
  • NEW! The six cognitive skills of NCSBN’s Clinical Judgment Measurement Model are integrated into the Application of Pharmacology in Nursing Practice chapter and in Summary of Major Nursing Considerations tables.
  • NEW! Enhanced emphasis on diversity, equity, and inclusion features updated gender-neutral language.
  • NEW! Updated COVID-19 content addresses the latest vaccination information and pharmacotherapeutic implications.
  • NEW coverage of CBD and expanded coverage of medical marijuana discusses the growing use of these substances.
  • NEW resources for the Next-Generation NCLEX® Examination (NGN) are included on the Evolve website and in the companion Study Guide.
Key Features

  • Clear, engaging writing style simplifies complex concepts, making difficult pharmacology content not only understandable but actually enjoyable.
  • Prototype Drugs approach focuses on representative agents that characterize all members of a given drug group, so that you can apply your understanding to related drugs that are currently available and those that will be released in the future.
  • Nursing implications of drug therapy are integrated throughout to show the relationship between drug therapy and nursing care, and also recapped in Summary of Major Nursing Implications sections.
  • Special Interest Topic boxes examine the everyday impact of pharmacology with engaging vignettes such as Vaping and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (COVID-19) Vaccine.
  • Safety Alerts call out important safety concerns related to contraindications, adverse effects, and more.
  • Concise drug summary tables present key information for individual drugs, including drug class, generic and trade names, dosages, routes, and indications.
  • Person-Centered Care Across the Life Span tables summarize safe and appropriate care for patients from infancy to older adulthood.

Περιεχόμενα

Cover image
Title page
Table of Contents
How to Use
How to Use
Copyright
Dedication
About the Authors
Contributors and Reviewers
Preface
Unit I. Introduction
Chapter 1. Orientation to Pharmacology
FOUR BASIC TERMS
PROPERTIES OF AN IDEAL DRUG
THE THERAPEUTIC OBJECTIVE
FACTORS THAT DETERMINE THE INTENSITY OF DRUG RESPONSES
Key Points
Chapter Outline
Chapter 2. Application of Pharmacology in Nursing Practice
NURSING RESPONSIBILITIES REGARDING DRUGS
APPLICATION OF PHARMACOLOGY IN PATIENT CARE
APPLICATION OF PHARMACOLOGY IN PATIENT EDUCATION
APPLICATION OF THE NURSING PROCESS AND CLINICAL JUDGMENT MEASUREMENT MODEL IN DRUG THERAPY
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Chapter 3. Drug Regulation, Development, Names, and Information
LANDMARK DRUG LEGISLATION
HAZARDOUS DRUG EXPOSURE
NEW DRUG DEVELOPMENT
DRUG NAMES
OVER-THE-COUNTER DRUGS
SOURCES OF DRUG INFORMATION
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Unit II. Basic Principles of Pharmacology
Chapter 4. Pharmacokinetics
APPLICATION OF PHARMACOKINETICS IN THERAPEUTICS
PASSAGE OF DRUGS ACROSS MEMBRANES
ABSORPTION
DISTRIBUTION
METABOLISM
EXCRETION
TIME COURSE OF DRUG RESPONSES
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Chapter 5. Pharmacodynamics
DOSE-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIPS
DRUG-RECEPTOR INTERACTIONS
DRUG RESPONSES THAT DO NOT INVOLVE RECEPTORS
INTERPATIENT VARIABILITY IN DRUG RESPONSES
THE THERAPEUTIC INDEX
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Chapter 6. Drug Interactions
DRUG-DRUG INTERACTIONS
DRUG-FOOD AND DRUG-SUPPLEMENT INTERACTIONS
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Chapter 7. Adverse Drug Reactions and Medication Errors
ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS
MEDICATION ERRORS
Key Points
Chapter Outline
Chapter 8. Individual Variation in Drug Responses
BODY SIZE AND AGE
ALTERATIONS IN PHYSIOLOGY
TOLERANCE
PLACEBO EFFECT
VARIABILITY IN ABSORPTION
GENETICS, SEX, AND ANCESTRY
COMORBIDITIES AND DRUG INTERACTIONS
DIET
FAILURE TO TAKE MEDICINE AS PRESCRIBED
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Chapter 9. Genetic and Genomic Considerations
PHARMACOGENOMICS
APPLICATIONS OF GENOMICS
GENETIC VARIANTS THAT ALTER DRUG METABOLISM
GENETIC VARIANTS
GENETIC AND PHARMACOGENOMICS TODAY
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Chapter 10. Introduction to Immunomodulators
MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES “mAbs”
TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITORS “NIBS”
PROTEASOME INHIBITORS “MIBS
CONCLUSION: IMMUNOTHERAPY OF THE FUTURE
Key Points
Chapter Outline
Unit III. Drug Therapy Across The Lifespan
Chapter 11. Drug Therapy During Pregnancy and Breastfeeding
DRUG THERAPY DURING PREGNANCY: BASIC CONSIDERATIONS
DRUG THERAPY DURING PREGNANCY: TERATOGENESIS AND OTHER RISKS
DRUG THERAPY DURING BREASTFEEDING
Key Points
Chapter Outline
Chapter 12. Drug Therapy in Pediatric Patients
DRUG THERAPY IN CHILDREN: BASIC CONSIDERATIONS
PHARMACOKINETICS: NEONATES AND INFANTS
PHARMACOKINETICS: CHILDREN 1 YEAR AND OLDER
MANAGING DRUG THERAPY IN THE GROWING PEDIATRIC PATIENT
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Chapter 13. Drug Therapy in Older Adults
PHARMACOKINETIC AND PHARMACODYNAMIC CHANGES IN OLDER ADULTS
ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS AND DRUG INTERACTIONS
THE PROBLEM OF NONADHERENCE
CONSIDERATIONS FOR END-OF-LIFE CARE
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Unit IV. Peripheral Nervous System Drugs
Chapter 14. Basic Principles of Neuropharmacology
NEUROPHARMACOLOGY AND THE ACTIONS OF NEURONS
BASIC MECHANISMS BY WHICH NEUROPHARMACOLOGIC AGENTS ACT
SELECTIVITY OF DRUG ACTION AND PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DRUGS
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Chapter 15. Physiology of the Peripheral Nervous System
OVERVIEW OF AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM FUNCTIONS
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM REGULATION OF PHYSIOLOGIC PROCESSES
ANATOMIC CONSIDERATIONS
TRANSMITTERS AND RECEPTORS OF THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
EXPLORING THE CONCEPT OF RECEPTOR SUBTYPES
Locations of Receptor Subtypes
FUNCTIONS OF CHOLINERGIC AND ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR SUBTYPES
TRANSMITTER LIFE CYCLES
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Chapter 16. Muscarinic Agonists
CHOLINERGIC DRUGS
MUSCARINIC AGONISTS
OTHER MUSCARINIC AGONISTS
TOXICOLOGY OF MUSCARINIC AGONISTS
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 17. Muscarinic Antagonists
MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS (ANTICHOLINERGIC DRUGS)
OTHER MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS
DRUGS FOR OVERACTIVE BLADDER
TOXICOLOGY OF MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 18. Cholinesterase Inhibitors and Their Use in Myasthenia Gravis
CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS
PYRIDOSTIGMINE, A REVERSIBLE CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITOR
OTHER REVERSIBLE CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS
ACUTE TOXICITY WITH CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS
IRREVERSIBLE CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS
TOXICOLOGY OF IRREVERSIBLE CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS
MYASTHENIA GRAVIS
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 19. Drugs That Block Nicotinic Cholinergic Transmission
PHYSIOLOGY OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION
THERAPEUTIC USES OF NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKERS
COMPETITIVE (NONDEPOLARIZING) NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKERS
PROPERTIES OF INDIVIDUAL COMPETITIVE NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKERS
SUCCINYLCHOLINE, A DEPOLARIZING NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKERS
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 20. Adrenergic Agonists
MECHANISMS OF ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR ACTIVATION
OVERVIEW OF THE ADRENERGIC AGONISTS
THERAPEUTIC APPLICATIONS AND ADVERSE EFFECTS OF ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR ACTIVATION
ADRENERGIC AGONISTS
EPINEPHRINE
OTHER ADRENERGIC AGONISTS
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 21. Adrenergic Antagonists
ALPHA-ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS: THERAPEUTIC RESPONSES TO ALPHA BLOCKADE
ADVERSE EFFECTS OF ALPHA BLOCKADE
PRAZOSIN: PROTOTYPE FOR ALPHA BLOCKERS
BETA-ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS: THERAPEUTIC APPLICATIONS OF BETA BLOCKADE
ADVERSE EFFECTS OF BETA BLOCKADE
PROPERTIES OF INDIVIDUAL BETA BLOCKERS
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 22. Indirect-Acting Antiadrenergic Agents
CENTRALLY ACTING α2 AGONISTS
CLONIDINE: PROTOTYPE FOR CENTRALLY ACTING α2 AGONISTS
OTHER CENTRALLY ACTING α2 AGONISTS
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Unit V. Central Nervous System Drugs
Chapter 23. Introduction to Central Nervous System Pharmacology
OVERVIEW OF CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DRUGS
PRODUCTION OF THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS
CHALLENGES IN DEVELOPING NEW PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC DRUGS
APPROACHING THE STUDY OF CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DRUGS
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Chapter 24. Drugs for Parkinson Disease
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF PARKINSON DISEASE
OVERVIEW OF MOTOR SYMPTOM MANAGEMENT
PHARMACOLOGY OF DRUGS USED FOR MOTOR SYMPTOMS
NONMOTOR SYMPTOMS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 25. Drugs for Alzheimer Disease
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF ALZHEIMER DISEASE
RISK FACTORS AND SYMPTOMS
DRUGS FOR COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT
CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS
MEMANTINE, AN N-METHYL-d-ASPARTATE RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST
ADUCANUMAB, A MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY
DRUGS FOR NEUROPSYCHIATRIC SYMPTOMS
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 26. Drugs for Multiple Sclerosis
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS
DRUG THERAPY OVERVIEW
DISEASE-MODIFYING DRUGS I: IMMUNOMODULATORS
DISEASE-MODIFYING DRUGS II: IMMUNOSUPPRESSANTS
DRUGS USED TO MANAGE MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS SYMPTOMS
Key Points
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 27. Drugs for Seizure Disorders
INTRODUCTION
TYPES OF SEIZURES
HOW ANTISEIZURE DRUGS WORK
BASIC THERAPEUTIC CONSIDERATIONS
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTISEIZURE DRUGS: FIRST GENERATION AND NEW GENERATION
PHENYTOIN: PROTOTYPE FOR FIRST-GENERATION ANTISEIZURE DRUGS
OXCARBAZEPINE: PROTOTYPE FOR NEW-GENERATION ANTISEIZURE DRUGS
MANAGEMENT OF GENERALIZED CONVULSIVE STATUS EPILEPTICUS
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 28. Drugs for Muscle Spasm and Spasticity
DRUGS FOR SPASTICITY
BACLOFEN: PROTOTYPE FOR CENTRALLY ACTING MUSCLE RELAXERS FOR SPASTICITY
DANTROLENE: PROTOTYPE FOR DIRECT-ACTING MUSCLE RELAXERS
DRUGS FOR LOCALIZED MUSCLE SPASM
CYCLOBENZAPRINE: PROTOTYPE FOR CENTRALLY ACTING MUSCLE RELAXANT FOR LOCALIZED SPASM
OTHER CENTRALLY ACTING MUSCLE RELAXANTS
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter outline
Chapter 29. Local Anesthetics
BASIC PHARMACOLOGY OF LOCAL ANESTHETICS
PROPERTIES OF INDIVIDUAL LOCAL ANESTHETICS
CLINICAL USE OF LOCAL ANESTHETICS
Key Points
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 30. General Anesthetics
INHALATION ANESTHETICS BASIC PHARMACOLOGY AND USAGE PRINCIPLES
PROPERTIES OF INDIVIDUAL INHALATION ANESTHETICS
INTRAVENOUS ANESTHETICS
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 31. Opioid Analgesics, Opioid Antagonists, and Nonopioid Centrally Acting Analgesics
OPIOID ANALGESICS
MORPHINE
OTHER STRONG OPIOID AGONISTS
MODERATE TO STRONG OPIOID AGONISTS
AGONIST-ANTAGONIST OPIOIDS
OPIOID ANTAGONISTS
TRAMADOL: A NONOPIOID CENTRALLY ACTING ANALGESIC
CLINICAL USE OF OPIOIDS
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 32. Pain Management in Patients With Cancer
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF PAIN
ASSESSMENT AND ONGOING EVALUATION
DRUG THERAPY
NONDRUG THERAPY
PAIN MANAGEMENT IN SPECIAL POPULATIONS
PATIENT EDUCATION
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Chapter 33. Drugs for Headache
MIGRAINE HEADACHE
MIGRAINE HEADACHE: ABORTIVE THERAPY
SEROTONIN1B/1D RECEPTOR AGONISTS (TRIPTANS)
SEROTONIN1F RECEPTOR AGONIST: LASMIDITAN
ERGOT ALKALOIDS
CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS
MIGRAINE: PREVENTIVE THERAPY
CLUSTER HEADACHES
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 34. Antipsychotic Agents and Their Use in Schizophrenia
SCHIZOPHRENIA: CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND ETIOLOGY
FIRST-GENERATION (CONVENTIONAL) ANTIPSYCHOTICS
SECOND-GENERATION (ATYPICAL) ANTIPSYCHOTICS
DEPOT ANTIPSYCHOTIC PREPARATIONS
MANAGEMENT OF SCHIZOPHRENIA
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 35. Antidepressants
MAJOR DEPRESSION: CLINICAL FEATURES, PATHOGENESIS, AND TREATMENT OVERVIEW
DRUGS USED FOR DEPRESSION—BASIC CONSIDERATIONS
SELECTIVE SEROTONIN REUPTAKE INHIBITORS
SEROTONIN/NOREPINEPHRINE REUPTAKE INHIBITORS
TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANTS
MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS
ATYPICAL ANTIDEPRESSANTS
NONCONVENTIONAL DRUGS FOR DEPRESSION (see Box 35.1)
PERIPARTUM DEPRESSION
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 36. Drugs for Bipolar Disorder
CHARACTERISTICS OF BIPOLAR DISORDER
DRUG THERAPY
NONDRUG THERAPY
MOOD-STABILIZING DRUGS: LITHIUM
ANTIEPILEPTIC DRUGS
ANTIPSYCHOTIC DRUGS
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 37. Sedative-Hypnotic Drugs
BENZODIAZEPINES
BENZODIAZEPINE-LIKE DRUGS
RAMELTEON: A MELATONIN AGONIST
SUVOREXANT: AN OREXIN ANTAGONIST
BARBITURATES
MANAGEMENT OF INSOMNIA
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 38. Management of Anxiety Disorders
GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER: CHARACTERISTICS AND TREATMENT
PANIC DISORDER: CHARACTERISTICS
PANIC DISORDER TREATMENT
OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER
SOCIAL ANXIETY DISORDER
POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Chapter 39. Central Nervous System Stimulants and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
AMPHETAMINES
METHYLPHENIDATE AND DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE
METHYLXANTHINES—CAFFEINE
MISCELLANEOUS CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM STIMULANTS—MODAFINIL
ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER—BASIC CONSIDERATIONS
DRUGS USED FOR ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER—CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM STIMULANTS
DRUGS USED FOR ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER—NONSTIMULANTS—ATOMOXETINE
NONSTIMULANTS-α2-ADRENERGIC AGONISTS
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 40. Substance Use Disorders I: Basic Considerations
DEFINITIONS AND DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA
FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO SUBSTANCE USE DISORDER
NEUROBIOLOGY OF SUBSTANCE USE DISORDERS
PRINCIPLES OF SUBSTANCE USE DISORDER TREATMENT
THE CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES ACT
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Chapter 41. Substance Use Disorders II: Alcohol
ALCOHOL: CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM EFFECTS
ALCOHOL—OTHER PHARMACOLOGIC EFFECTS
PHARMACOKINETICS
TOLERANCE AND PHYSICAL DEPENDENCE
DRUG INTERACTIONS, ALCOHOL OVERDOSE, AND PRECAUTIONS
ALCOHOL USE DISORDER
DRUGS FOR ALCOHOL USE DISORDER TO TREAT ACUTE WITHDRAWAL
DRUGS USED TO MAINTAIN ABSTINENCE
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 42. Substance Use Disorders III: Nicotine
BASIC PHARMACOLOGY OF NICOTINE
AIDS TO SMOKING CESSATION
NICOTINE REPLACEMENT THERAPY
NON-NICOTINE THERAPY: BUPROPION ER
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Chapter 43. Substance Use Disorders IV: Major Drugs of Abuse Other Than Alcohol and Nicotine
OPIOIDS AND KRATOM
GENERAL CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DEPRESSANTS
PSYCHOSTIMULANTS—COCAINE
PSYCHOSTIMULANTS—METHAMPHETAMINE
PSYCHOSTIMULANTS—SYNTHETIC CATHINONES
MARIJUANA AND RELATED PREPARATIONS
PSYCHEDELICS—D-LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE
PSYCHEDELICS—SALVIA
PSYCHEDELICS—MESCALINE, PSILOCIN, PSILOCYBIN, AND DIMETHYLTRYPTAMINE
DISSOCIATIVE DRUGS—PHENCYCLIDINE
DISSOCIATIVE DRUGS—KETAMINE
DISSOCIATIVE DRUGS—DEXTROMETHORPHAN
3-,4-METHYLENEDIOXYMETHAMPHETAMINE (ECSTASY)
INHALANTS
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Unit VI. Drugs That Affect Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
Chapter 44. Diuretics
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
INTRODUCTION TO DIURETICS
LOOP DIURETICS—FUROSEMIDE
THIAZIDES AND RELATED DIURETICS—HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE
POTASSIUM-SPARING DIURETICS—SPIRONOLACTONE
OTHER POTASSIUM-SPARING DIURETICS—TRIAMTERENE AND AMILORIDE
MANNITOL: AN OSMOTIC DIURETIC
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 45. Agents Affecting the Volume and Ion Content of Body Fluids
DISORDERS OF FLUID VOLUME AND OSMOLALITY
ACID–BASE DISTURBANCES
POTASSIUM IMBALANCES
MAGNESIUM IMBALANCES
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Unit VII. Drugs That Affect The Heart, Blood Vessels, and Blood
Chapter 46. Review of Hemodynamics
OVERVIEW OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
REGULATION OF CARDIAC OUTPUT
REGULATION OF ARTERIAL PRESSURE
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Chapter 47. Drugs Acting on the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System
PHYSIOLOGY OF THE RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN-ALDOSTERONE SYSTEM
ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS
ANGIOTENSIN II RECEPTOR BLOCKERS
ALISKIREN: A DIRECT RENIN INHIBITOR
ALDOSTERONE ANTAGONISTS: EPLERENONE AND SPIRONOLACTONE
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 48. Calcium Channel Blockers
CALCIUM CHANNELS: PHYSIOLOGIC FUNCTIONS AND CONSEQUENCES OF BLOCKADE
CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS: CLASSIFICATION AND SITES OF ACTION
NON-DIHYDROPYRIDINES: VERAPAMIL AND DILTIAZEM: AGENTS THAT ACT ON VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE AND THE HEART
DIHYDROPYRIDINES: AGENTS THAT ACT MAINLY ON VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE—NIFEDIPINE
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 49. Vasodilators
BASIC CONCEPTS IN VASODILATOR PHARMACOLOGY
PHARMACOLOGY OF INDIVIDUAL VASODILATORS—HYDRALAZINE
INDIVIDUAL VASODILATORS—MINOXIDIL
INDIVIDUAL VASODILATORS—SODIUM NITROPRUSSIDE
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Chapter 50. Drugs for Hypertension
BASIC CONSIDERATIONS IN HYPERTENSION
CLASSIFICATION OF BLOOD PRESSURE AND TYPES OF HYPERTENSION
MANAGEMENT OF CHRONIC HYPERTENSION
TREATMENT GOALS AND THERAPEUTIC INTERVENTIONS
REVIEW OF BLOOD PRESSURE CONTROL
DRUG THERAPY
CLASSES OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUGS
FUNDAMENTALS OF HYPERTENSION DRUG THERAPY
INDIVIDUALIZING THERAPY
PROMOTING ADHERENCE
DRUGS FOR HYPERTENSIVE EMERGENCIES
DRUGS FOR HYPERTENSIVE DISORDERS OF PREGNANCY
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 51. Drugs for Heart Failure
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF HEART FAILURE
OVERVIEW OF DRUGS USED TO TREAT HEART FAILURE—DIURETICS
OVERVIEW OF DRUGS USED TO TREAT HEART FAILURE—DRUGS THAT INHIBIT THE RAAS
OVERVIEW OF DRUGS USED TO TREAT HEART FAILURE: ADDITIONAL DRUG CLASSES
DIGOXIN: A CARDIAC GLYCOSIDE
ADVERSE EFFECTS OF DIGOXIN
VARICIGUAT: A NOVEL SOLUBLE GUANYLATE CYCLASE STIMULATOR
MANAGEMENT OF HEART FAILURE
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 52. Antidysrhythmic Drugs
ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF THE HEART
GENERATION OF DYSRHYTHMIAS
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTIDYSRHYTHMIC DRUGS AND THEIR PRODYSRHYTHMIC EFFECTS
OVERVIEW OF COMMON DYSRHYTHMIAS AND THEIR TREATMENT
PRINCIPLES OF ANTIDYSRHYTHMIC DRUG THERAPY
PHARMACOLOGY OF THE ANTIDYSRHYTHMIC DRUGS—CLASS I: SODIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS
CLASS II: β BLOCKERS
CLASS III: POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS (DRUGS THAT DELAY REPOLARIZATION)
CLASS IV: CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS
OTHER ANTIDYSRHYTHMIC DRUGS
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 53. Drugs That Help Normalize Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels
CHOLESTEROL AND PLASMA LIPOPROTEINS
ROLE OF LDL CHOLESTEROL IN ATHEROSCLEROSIS
2018 ACC/AHA GUIDELINES ON THE MANAGEMENT OF BLOOD CHOLESTEROL
DRUGS AND OTHER PRODUCTS USED TO IMPROVE PLASMA LIPID LEVELS—HMG-CoA REDUCTASE INHIBITORS (STATINS)
BILE-ACID SEQUESTRANTS—COLESEVELAM
EZETIMIBE
FIBRIC ACID DERIVATIVES (FIBRATES)—GEMFIBROZIL
MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES (PROPROTEIN CONVERTASE SUBTILISIN/KEXIN TYPE 9 INHIBITORS)
ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE-CITRASE LYASE INHIBITORS
FISH OIL
PLANT STANOL AND STEROL ESTERS AND CHOLESTIN
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 54. Drugs for Angina Pectoris
DETERMINANTS OF CARDIAC OXYGEN DEMAND AND OXYGEN SUPPLY
ANGINA PECTORIS: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND TREATMENT STRATEGY
ORGANIC NITRATES—NITROGLYCERIN
DRUGS FOR STABLE ANGINA
RANOLAZINE
TREATMENT MEASURES
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 55. Anticoagulant, Antiplatelet, and Thrombolytic Drugs
COAGULATION: PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY—HEMOSTASIS
COAGULATION: PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY—THROMBOSIS
OVERVIEW OF DRUGS FOR THROMBOEMBOLIC DISORDERS
ANTICOAGULANTS—HEPARIN (UNFRACTIONATED)
LOW-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT HEPARINS
FONDAPARINUX
WARFARIN: A VITAMIN K ANTAGONIST
DIRECT THROMBIN INHIBITORS: DABIGATRAN ETEXILATE
DIRECT THROMBIN INHIBITORS—BIVALIRUDIN
DIRECT ORAL ANTICOAGULANTS: DIRECT FACTOR XA INHIBITORS—RIVAROXABAN
ANTIPLATELET DRUGS—ASPIRIN
ANTIPLATELET DRUGS: P2Y12 ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS—CLOPIDOGREL
ANTIPLATELET DRUGS: PROTEASE-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR-1 ANTAGONISTS—VORAPAXAR
ANTIPLATELET DRUGS: GLYCOPROTEIN IIB/IIIA RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS
OTHER ANTIPLATELET DRUGS
THROMBOLYTIC (FIBRINOLYTIC) DRUGS—ALTEPLASE
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 56. Management of ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF STEMI
DIAGNOSIS OF STEMI
MANAGEMENT OF STEMI
COMPLICATIONS OF STEMI
SECONDARY PREVENTION OF STEMI
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Chapter 57. Drugs for Hemophilia
BASIC CONSIDERATIONS
PREPARATIONS USED TO TREAT HEMOPHILIA—FACTOR VIII CONCENTRATES
PREPARATIONS USED TO TREAT HEMOPHILIA—FACTOR IX CONCENTRATES
NON-FACTOR THERAPIES
ANTIFIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS
MANAGING PATIENTS WHO DEVELOP INHIBITORS
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 58. Drugs for Deficiency Anemias
RED BLOOD CELL DEVELOPMENT
BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF IRON
IRON DEFICIENCY: CAUSES, CONSEQUENCES, AND DIAGNOSIS
FERROUS IRON SALTS—FERROUS SULFATE
CARBONYL IRON
PARENTERAL IRON PREPARATIONS—IRON DEXTRAN
GUIDELINES FOR TREATING IRON DEFICIENCY
BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF VITAMIN B12
VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY: CAUSES, CONSEQUENCES, AND DIAGNOSIS
VITAMIN B12 PREPARATIONS: CYANOCOBALAMIN
GUIDELINES FOR TREATING VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY
PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY OF FOLIC ACID
FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCY: CAUSES, CONSEQUENCES, AND DIAGNOSIS
FOLIC ACID PREPARATIONS
GUIDELINES FOR TREATING FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCY
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 59. Hematopoietic Agents
HEMATOPOIETIC AND ERYTHROPOIETIC GROWTH FACTORS
EPOETIN ALFA (ERYTHROPOIETIN)
DARBEPOETIN ALFA (ERYTHROPOIETIN, LONG ACTING)
LEUKOPOIETIC GROWTH FACTORS: FILGRASTIM (GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR)
SARGRAMOSTIM (GRANULOCYTE-MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR)
THROMBOPOIETIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS—ROMIPLOSTIM
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Unit VIII. Drugs for Endocrine Disorders
Chapter 60. Drugs for Diabetes Mellitus
DIABETES MELLITUS
Overview of Management
Insulin
Therapeutic Use
Oral Medications for the Management of Diabetes
Noninsulin Injectable Agents for the Management of Diabetes
Acute Complications of Poor Glycemic Control
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 61. Drugs for Thyroid Disorders
THYROID PHYSIOLOGY
THYROID FUNCTION TESTS
THYROID PATHOPHYSIOLOGY—HYPOTHYROIDISM
THYROID PATHOPHYSIOLOGY—HYPERTHYROIDISM
THYROID HORMONE PREPARATIONS FOR HYPOTHYROIDISM—LEVOTHYROXINE (T4)
DRUGS FOR HYPERTHYROIDISM—METHIMAZOLE
RADIOACTIVE IODINE
NONRADIOACTIVE IODINE: LUGOL SOLUTION
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 62. Drugs Related to Hypothalamic and Pituitary Function
OVERVIEW OF HYPOTHALAMIC AND PITUITARY ENDOCRINOLOGY
GROWTH HORMONE: PHYSIOLOGY
GROWTH HORMONE: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
GROWTH HORMONE: CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
PROLACTIN
ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE (VASOPRESSIN)
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 63. Drugs for Disorders of the Adrenal Cortex
GLUCOCORTICOIDS
MINERALOCORTICOIDS
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF THE ADRENOCORTICAL HORMONES: HORMONE EXCESS
ADRENAL HORMONE INSUFFICIENCY
AGENTS FOR REPLACEMENT THERAPY IN ADRENOCORTICAL INSUFFICIENCY
AGENTS FOR DIAGNOSING ADRENOCORTICAL DISORDERS
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Unit IX. Reproductive Health
Chapter 64. Estrogens and Progestins: Basic Pharmacology and Noncontraceptive Applications
THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE
ESTROGENS
CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY OF ESTROGENS
PROGESTERONE
CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
MENOPAUSAL HORMONE THERAPY
FEMALE SEXUAL INTEREST/AROUSAL DISORDER
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 65. Birth Control
EFFECTIVENESS OF BIRTH CONTROL METHODS AND SELECTING A BIRTH CONTROL METHOD
ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES—COMBINATION PRODUCTS
ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES—PROGESTIN-ONLY ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES
COMBINATION CONTRACEPTIVES WITH NOVEL DELIVERY SYSTEMS
LONG-ACTING CONTRACEPTIVES—SUBDERMAL ETONOGESTREL IMPLANTS
LONG-ACTING CONTRACEPTIVES: DEPOT MEDROXYPROGESTERONE ACETATE
LONG-ACTING CONTRACEPTIVES: INTRAUTERINE DEVICES
SPERMICIDES
DRUGS FOR MEDICAL ABORTION
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implicationsfn1a
Evaluate Outcomes
Chapter Outline
Chapter 66. Drug Therapy for Infertility
INFERTILITY: CAUSES AND TREATMENT STRATEGIES
DRUGS USED TO TREAT FEMALE INFERTILITY
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 67. Drugs That Affect Uterine Function
DRUGS FOR PRETERM LABOR
DRUGS FOR CERVICAL RIPENING AND INDUCTION OF LABOR
DRUGS FOR POSTPARTUM HEMORRHAGE
DRUGS FOR MENORRHAGIA
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 68. Androgens
TESTOSTERONE
CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY OF THE ANDROGENS
ANDROGEN PREPARATIONS FOR MALE HYPOGONADISM
ANABOLIC STEROID USE DISORDER
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 69. Drugs for Erectile Dysfunction and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION
ORAL DRUGS FOR ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION
NONORAL DRUGS FOR ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION
PREMATURE EJACULATION
DRUG THERAPY FOR PREMATURE EJACULATION
BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA
DRUG THERAPY FOR BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implicationsa
Chapter Outline
Chapter 70. Transgender Health
TRANSGENDER HEALTH OVERVIEW
CONSIDERATIONS FOR GENDER-AFFIRMATION TREATMENT
INITIATING THERAPY DURING ADOLESCENCE
GENDER-AFFIRMING HORMONE THERAPY FOR TRANSGENDER ADOLESCENTS
GENDER-AFFIRMING HORMONE THERAPY FOR ADULTS
MEDICATIONS FOR TRANSITIONING
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Unit X. Anti-Inflammatory, Antiallergic, and Immunologic Drugs
Chapter 71. Review of the Immune System
INTRODUCTION TO THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
ANTIBODY-MEDIATED (HUMORAL) IMMUNITY
CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Chapter 72. Childhood Immunization
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
TARGET DISEASES
SPECIFIC VACCINES AND TOXOIDS—MEASLES, MUMPS, AND RUBELLA VIRUS VACCINE
SPECIFIC VACCINES AND TOXOIDS—DIPHTHERIA AND TETANUS TOXOIDS AND ACELLULAR PERTUSSIS VACCINE
SPECIFIC VACCINES AND TOXOIDS—POLIOVIRUS VACCINE
SPECIFIC VACCINES AND TOXOIDS—HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B CONJUGATE VACCINE
SPECIFIC VACCINES AND TOXOIDS—VARICELLA VIRUS VACCINE
SPECIFIC VACCINES AND TOXOIDS—HEPATITIS B VACCINE
SPECIFIC VACCINES AND TOXOIDS—HEPATITIS A VACCINE
SPECIFIC VACCINES AND TOXOIDS—PNEUMOCOCCAL CONJUGATE VACCINE
SPECIFIC VACCINES AND TOXOIDS—MENINGOCOCCAL CONJUGATE VACCINE
SPECIFIC VACCINES AND TOXOIDS—ROTAVIRUS VACCINE
SPECIFIC VACCINES AND TOXOIDS—HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS VACCINE
EXPERIMENTAL VACCINES—RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS VACCINE
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Chapter 73. Immunosuppressants
CALCINEURIN INHIBITORS
mTOR INHIBITORS
CYTOTOXIC DRUGS
ANTIBODIES
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 74. Antihistamines
HISTAMINE
ANTIHISTAMINES: H1 ANTAGONISTS—BASIC PHARMACOLOGY
HISTAMINE1 ANTAGONISTS II: PREPARATIONS
Key Points
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 75. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors: Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs and Acetaminophen
MECHANISM OF ACTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF CYCLOOXYGENASE INHIBITORS
FIRST-GENERATION NSAIDS—ASPIRIN
NONASPIRIN FIRST-GENERATION NSAIDS
IBUPROFEN
NONACETYLATED SALICYLATES: MAGNESIUM SALICYLATE, SODIUM SALICYLATE, AND SALSALATE
SECOND-GENERATION NSAIDS (COX-2 INHIBITORS, COXIBS)—CELECOXIB
ACETAMINOPHEN
AHA STATEMENT ON THE USE OF COX INHIBITORS FOR CHRONIC PAIN
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 76. Glucocorticoids in Nonendocrine Disorders
REVIEW OF GLUCOCORTICOID PHYSIOLOGY
PHARMACOLOGY OF GLUCOCORTICOIDS
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Unit XI. Drugs for Bone and Joint Disorders
Chapter 77. Drug Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
OVERVIEW OF THERAPY
CLASSES OF ANTIARTHRITIC DRUGS
NONSTEROIDAL ANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS
GLUCOCORTICOIDS
CONVENTIONAL (TRADITIONAL) DISEASE-MODIFYING ANTIRHEUMATIC DRUGS
BIOLOGIC DISEASE-MODIFYING ANTIRHEUMATIC DRUGS
TARGETED DISEASE-MODIFYING ANTIRHEUMATIC DRUGS: JANUS KINASE INHIBITORS
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 78. Drug Therapy for Gout
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF GOUT
OVERVIEW OF DRUG THERAPY
DRUGS FOR ACUTE GOUT FLARES
DRUGS FOR HYPERURICEMIA (URATE-LOWERING THERAPY)
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Chapter 79. Drugs Affecting Calcium Levels and Bone Mineralization
CALCIUM PHYSIOLOGY
CALCIUM-RELATED PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
DRUGS FOR DISORDERS INVOLVING CALCIUM AND BONE MINERALIZATION
OSTEOPOROSIS
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Unit XII. Respiratory Tract Drugs
Chapter 80. Drugs for Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
BASIC CONSIDERATIONS
ANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS
BRONCHODILATORS
COMBINATION DRUGS
MANAGEMENT OF ASTHMA AND CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE
MANAGEMENT OF CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 81. Drugs for Allergic Rhinitis, Cough, and Colds
DRUGS FOR ALLERGIC RHINITIS
DRUGS FOR COUGH
COLD REMEDIES
Key Points
Chapter Outline
Unit XIII. Gastrointestinal Drugs
Chapter 82. Drugs for Peptic Ulcer Disease
PATHOGENESIS OF PEPTIC ULCERS
OVERVIEW OF TREATMENT—DRUG THERAPY
OVERVIEW OF TREATMENT—NONDRUG THERAPY
ANTIBACTERIAL DRUGS
HISTAMINE2 RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS—CIMETIDINE
PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS—OMEPRAZOLE
OTHER ANTIULCER DRUGS
ANTACIDS
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 83. Laxatives
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
BASIC PHARMACOLOGY OF LAXATIVES—BULK-FORMING LAXATIVES
SURFACTANT LAXATIVES
STIMULANT LAXATIVES
OSMOTIC LAXATIVES
OTHER LAXATIVES
BOWEL CLEANSING PRODUCTS FOR COLONOSCOPY
LAXATIVE ABUSE
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter outline
Chapter 84. Other Gastrointestinal Drugs
ANTIEMETICS AND THE EMETIC RESPONSE
ANTIEMETIC DRUGS
DRUGS FOR MOTION SICKNESS
ANTIDIARRHEAL AGENTS
MANAGEMENT OF INFECTIOUS DIARRHEA
DRUGS FOR IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME
DRUGS FOR INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE
PROKINETIC AGENTS—METOCLOPRAMIDE
PALIFERMIN
PANCREATIC ENZYMES AND DRUGS USED TO DISSOLVE GALLSTONES
ANORECTAL PREPARATIONS
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Unit XIV. Nutrition and Complementary Therapy
Chapter 85. Vitamins
WHAT ARE VITAMINS?
FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS
WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS
Key Points
Chapter Outline
Chapter 86. Drugs for Weight Loss
ASSESSMENT OF WEIGHT-RELATED HEALTH RISK
Pathophysiology
OVERVIEW OF OBESITY TREATMENT
WEIGHT-LOSS DRUGS
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Chapter 87. Complementary and Alternative Therapy
REGULATION OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS
ONGOING CONCERNS REGARDING DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS
SOME COMMONLY USED DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Unit XV. Therapy of Infectious Diseases
Chapter 88. Basic Principles of Antimicrobial Therapy
ACHIEVING SELECTIVE TOXICITY
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL DRUGS
ACQUIRED RESISTANCE TO ANTIMICROBIAL DRUGS
SELECTION OF ANTIBIOTICS
HOST FACTORS THAT MODIFY DRUG CHOICE, ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION, OR DOSAGE
DOSAGE, DURATION, AND MONITORING OF TREATMENT
THERAPY WITH ANTIBIOTIC COMBINATIONS
PROPHYLACTIC USE OF ANTIMICROBIAL DRUGS
MISUSES OF ANTIMICROBIAL DRUGS
Key Points
Chapter Outline
Chapter 89. Drugs That Weaken the Bacterial Cell Wall I: Penicillins
INTRODUCTION TO THE PENICILLINS
PROPERTIES OF PENICILLIN G
PROPERTIES OF INDIVIDUAL PENICILLINS OTHER THAN PENICILLIN G
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 90. Drugs That Weaken the Bacterial Cell Wall II: Other Drugs
CEPHALOSPORINS
CARBAPENEMS: IMIPENEM
OTHER INHIBITORS OF CELL WALL SYNTHESIS: VANCOMYCIN
LIPOGLYCOPROTEINS: TELAVANCIN
LIPOGLYCOPROTEINS: AZTREONAM
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 91. Bacteriostatic Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis: Tetracyclines, Macrolides, and Others
TETRACYCLINES
MACROLIDES: ERYTHROMYCIN
OTHER BACTERIOSTATIC INHIBITORS OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS: CLINDAMYCIN
OTHER BACTERIOSTATIC INHIBITORS OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS: LINEZOLID
OTHER BACTERIOSTATIC INHIBITORS OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS: RETAPAMULIN AND MUPIROCIN
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 92. Aminoglycosides: Bactericidal Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis
BASIC PHARMACOLOGY OF THE AMINOGLYCOSIDES
PROPERTIES OF INDIVIDUAL AMINOGLYCOSIDES
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 93. Sulfonamide Antibiotics and Trimethoprim
SULFONAMIDES
SULFONAMIDE PREPARATIONS
TRIMETHOPRIM
TRIMETHOPRIM/SULFAMETHOXAZOLE
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 94. Drug Therapy for Urinary Tract Infections
SPECIFIC URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS AND THEIR TREATMENT
URINARY TRACT ANTISEPTICS: NITROFURANTOIN
URINARY TRACT ANTISEPTICS: METHENAMINE
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Chapter 95. Antimycobacterial Agents: Drugs for Tuberculosis
CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR TUBERCULOSIS
PHARMACOLOGY OF INDIVIDUAL ANTITUBERCULOSIS DRUGS
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
RIFAMPIN
Chapter Outline
Chapter 96. Miscellaneous Antibacterial Drugs: Fluoroquinolones, Metronidazole, Daptomycin, Rifampin, Rifaximin, and Fidaxomicin
FLUOROQUINOLONES: CIPROFLOXACIN
ADDITIONAL ANTIBACTERIAL DRUGS: METRONIDAZOLE
ADDITIONAL ANTIBACTERIAL DRUGS: DAPTOMYCIN
ADDITIONAL ANTIBACTERIAL DRUGS: RIFAMPIN, RIFAXIMIN, AND FIDAXOMICIN
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 97. Antifungal Agents
DRUGS FOR SYSTEMIC MYCOSES: AMPHOTERICIN B, A POLYENE ANTIBIOTIC
DRUGS FOR SYSTEMIC MYCOSES: ITRACONAZOLE
DRUGS FOR SYSTEMIC MYCOSES: CASPOFUNGIN
FLUCYTOSINE, A PYRIMIDINE ANALOG
DRUGS FOR SUPERFICIAL MYCOSES: OVERVIEW OF DRUG THERAPY
DRUGS FOR SUPERFICIAL MYCOSES: ANTIFUNGALS
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 98. Antiviral Agents I: Drugs for Non-HIV Viral Infections
DRUGS FOR INFECTION WITH HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUSES AND VARICELLA-ZOSTER VIRUS
DRUGS FOR CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INFECTION
VIRAL HEPATITIS
DRUGS FOR INFLUENZA
DRUGS FOR RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS
DRUGS FOR CORONAVIRUS DISEASE OF 2019 (COVID-19)
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
Chapter Outline
Chapter 99. Antiviral Agents II: Drugs for HIV Infection and Related Opportunistic Infections
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
DRUG INTERACTIONS AND COMPLICATIONS
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS
NUCLEOSIDE/NUCLEOTIDE REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITORS
NON-NUCLEOSIDE REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITORS
PROTEASE INHIBITORS
INTEGRASE STRAND TRANSFER INHIBITORS
HIV FUSION INHIBITORS
CCR5 ANTAGONISTS
ATTACHMENT INHIBITOR
POST-ATTACHMENT INHIBITOR
MANAGEMENT OF HIV INFECTION
PREVENTING HIV INFECTION WITH DRUGS
PROPHYLAXIS AND TREATMENT OF OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS
HIV VACCINES
KEY POINTS
Summary of Major Nursing Implications
EFAVIRENZ (Prototype for Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors)
Chapter Outline
Chapter 100. Drug Therapy for Sexually Transmitted Infections
CHLAMYDIAL INFECTIONS
GONOCOCCAL INFECTIONS
SYPHILIS
BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS
TRICHOMONIASIS
GENITAL HERPES
NONGONOCOCCAL URETHRITIS
PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE
ACUTE EPIDIDYMITIS
PROCTITIS
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Chapter 101. Antiseptics and Disinfectants
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
PROPERTIES OF INDIVIDUAL ANTISEPTICS AND DISINFECTANTS
HAND HYGIENE FOR HEALTH CARE WORKERS
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Unit XVI. Chemotherapy of Parasitic Diseases
Chapter 102. Anthelmintics
CLASSIFICATION OF PARASITIC WORMS
HELMINTHIC INFESTATIONS
DRUGS OF CHOICE FOR HELMINTHIASIS
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Chapter 103. Antiprotozoal Drugs I: Antimalarial Agents
BASIC CONSIDERATIONS
PRINCIPLES OF ANTIMALARIAL THERAPY
PHARMACOLOGY OF THE MAJOR ANTIMALARIAL DRUGS
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Chapter 104. Antiprotozoal Drugs II: Miscellaneous Agents
PROTOZOAL INFECTIONS
DRUGS OF CHOICE FOR PROTOZOAL INFECTIONS
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Chapter 105. Ectoparasiticides
ECTOPARASITIC INFESTATIONS
PHARMACOLOGY OF ECTOPARASITICIDES
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Unit XVII. Cancer Chemotherapy
Chapter 106. Basic Principles of Cancer Treatment
OVERVIEW OF CANCER TREATMENT
WHAT IS CANCER?
THE GROWTH FRACTION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO CHEMOTHERAPY
OBSTACLES TO SUCCESSFUL CHEMOTHERAPY
STRATEGIES FOR ACHIEVING MAXIMUM BENEFITS FROM CHEMOTHERAPY
MAJOR TOXICITIES OF CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC DRUGS
MAKING THE DECISION TO TREAT
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Chapter 107. Anticancer Drugs I: Cytotoxic Agents
INTRODUCTION TO THE CYTOTOXIC ANTICANCER DRUGS
ALKYLATING AGENTS
PLATINUM COMPOUNDS
ANTIMETABOLITES
HYPOMETHYLATING AGENTS
ANTITUMOR ANTIBIOTICS
MITOTIC INHIBITORS
TOPOISOMERASE INHIBITORS
MISCELLANEOUS CYTOTOXIC DRUGS
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Chapter 108. Anticancer Drugs II: Hormonal Agents, Targeted Drugs, and Other Noncytotoxic Anticancer Drugs
NON-CYTOTOXIC DRUGS FOR BREAST CANCER
ANTIESTROGENS: TAMOXIFEN
AROMATASE INHIBITORS: ANASTROZOLE
TRASTUZUMAB
PALBOCICLIB AND RIBOCICLIB
DENOSUMAB AND BISPHOSPHONATES FOR SKELETAL-RELATED EVENTS
NON-CYTOTOXIC DRUGS FOR PROSTATE CANCER
ANDROGEN DEPRIVATION THERAPY
OTHER NON-CYTOTOXIC DRUGS FOR PROSTATE CANCER: SIPULEUCEL-T
TARGETED ANTICANCER DRUGS: KINASE INHIBITORS
OTHER TARGETED DRUGS
IMMUNOSTIMULANTS: INTERFERON ALFA-2B
IMMUNOSTIMULANTS: ALDESLEUKIN (INTERLEUKIN-2)
IMMUNOSTIMULANTS: BACILLUS CALMETTE–GUÉRIN VACCINE
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Unit XVIII. Miscellaneous Drugs and Therapies
Chapter 109. Drugs for Eye Conditions and Diseases
DRUGS FOR GLAUCOMA
CYCLOPLEGICS AND MYDRIATICS
DRUGS FOR ALLERGIC CONJUNCTIVITIS
DRUGS FOR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION
ADDITIONAL OPHTHALMIC DRUGS
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Chapter 110. Drugs for Skin Conditions
ANATOMY OF THE SKIN
TOPICAL DRUG FORMULATIONS
TOPICAL GLUCOCORTICOIDS
KERATOLYTIC AGENTS
ACNE
DRUGS FOR ROSACEA
SUNSCREENS
PSORIASIS
DRUGS FOR ACTINIC KERATOSES
DRUGS FOR ATOPIC DERMATITIS (ECZEMA)
AGENTS FOR WART REMOVAL
DRUGS FOR MISCELLANEOUS SKIN AND HAIR CONDITIONS
SKIN INFECTIONS AND INFESTATIONS
Drugs for Superficial Fungal Infections
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Chapter 111. Drugs for Ear Conditions
ANATOMY OF THE EAR
OTITIS MEDIA AND ITS MANAGEMENT
OTITIS EXTERNA
KEY POINTS
SUMMARY OF MAJOR NURSING IMPLICATIONS
Chapter Outline
Unit XIX. Toxicology
Chapter 112. Management of Poisoning
FUNDAMENTALS OF TREATMENT
DRUGS AND PROCEDURES USED TO MINIMIZE POISON ABSORPTION
DRUGS AND PROCEDURES USED FOR POISON REMOVAL
SPECIFIC ANTIDOTES
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Chapter 113. Potential Weapons of Biologic, Radiologic, and Chemical Terrorism
BACTERIA AND VIRUSES: BACILLUS ANTHRACIS (ANTHRAX)
BACTERIA AND VIRUSES: FRANCISELLA TULARENSIS (TULAREMIA)
BACTERIA AND VIRUSES: YERSINIA PESTIS (PNEUMONIC PLAGUE)
BACTERIA AND VIRUSES: VARIOLA VIRUS (SMALLPOX)
BIOTOXINS
CHEMICAL WEAPONS
RADIOLOGIC WEAPONS
KEY POINTS
Chapter Outline
Appendix A. Canadian Drug Information
Appendix B. Prototype Drugs and Their Major Uses
Index
Special Interest Topics