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Practical Handbook of Fluorescein Angiography

Συγγραφείς: Bruno Lumbroso
ISBN: 9789350909911

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Διαθεσιμότητα: 23-28 ημέρες


Fluorescein angiography is an eye test that uses a special dye and camera to look at blood flow in the retina and choroid, the two layers in the back of the eye (MedlinePlus).

This book is a practical guide to fluorescein angiography. Divided into five sections, it covers interpretation, general principles for interpreting a pathological fluorescein angiography, pathological fluorescein angiography analytical study, pathological fluorescein angiography and major fluorescein angiography syndromes, including diabetic retinopathy, vascular occlusions, age related macular degeneration and inflammatory disorders.

Written by internationally recognised specialists Bruno Lumbroso and Marco Rispoli from Centro Oftalmologico Mediterraneo in Rome, this handbook includes nearly 170 angiograph images and tables to help trainees recognise and interpret angiographic findings and make an accurate diagnosis of ophthalmic disorders.

Key points

  • Concise guide to recognising and interpreting fluorescein angiography
  • Covers major all angiographic syndromes
  • Written by internationally recognised specialists from Rome
  • Includes nearly 170 angiographic images and tables


Part I: Interpretation
Chapter 1: Retinal Anatomy and Fluorescein Angiography 3
Posterior Pole 3
Macular Area 3
Retinal Arteries and Veins 3
Choroid 4
Chapter 2: Normal Fluorescein Angiography of the Retina 5
Arm to Retina Phase 5
Choroidal Phase 5
Arterial Phase 5
Capillary or Arteriovenous Phase 7
Venous Phase 7
Tissue Phase 8
Pseudofluorescence 8
Autofluorescence 8
Chapter 3: Normal Fluorescein Angiogram of the Optic Disc 11
Chapter 4: Normal Fluorescein Angiography of the Choroid 13
Part II: General Principles for Interpreting a Pathological
Fluorescein Angiography
Chapter 5: Interpreting a Pathological Fluorescein Angiography 17
Analytic Study 17
Synthetic Evaluation 17
Prelims.indd 7 28-09-2013 14:54:40Practical Handbook of Fluorescein Angiography viii
Part III: Pathological Fluorescein Angiography Analytical Study
Chapter 6: Abnormal Hyperfluorescence 23
Abnormal Transmission of Fluorescence (Window Defect) 23
Causes 23
Leakage 27
Retinal Leakage 30
Central Serous Chorioretinopathy 30
Chronic Serous Chorioretinopathy 33
Haradas Disease 33
Leakage from Newly Formed Retinal Vessels 33
Microaneurysms 33
Venous Occlusion Lesions of the Main Vessels with Leakage 33
Leakage in Vasculitis 33
Leakage and Pooling in Retinal Angiomas 36
Choroid Leakage 36
Exudative Choroidopathies 36
Sub-retinal New Vessels 36
Fluorescein Pooling 38
Retinal Pigment Epithelium Serous Detachment 38
Pooling in Retinal Vascular Alterations 38
Cystoid Macular Edema 38
Pooling in the Choroid 42
Tissue Staining 42
Chapter 7: Abnormal Hypofluorescence 49
Screen or Mask Effect of Normal Fluorescence 49
Total Screen 49
Hemorrhages 49
Pigment 49
Incomplete Screen 50
Constant Screen 50
Transitory Screen 53
Vascular Filling Defects 54
Filling Defects: Retina 54
Artery Occlusion 54
Venous Occlusion 54
Capillary Micro-occlusions 56
Vascular Malformations 56
Other Causes 56
Filling Defects: Choroid 57
Chapter 8: Abnormalities in Circulation Time 59
Faster Vascular Filling 59
Prelims.indd 8 28-09-2013 14:54:41Contents
Delayed Filling 59
Retina 60
Choroid 60
Optic Nerve 60
Fluorescein Angiography and Blood-Retina Barrier 60
Part IV: Pathological Fluorescein Angiography-Synthesis
Chapter 9: Synthetic Evaluation 65
Synthesis and Deduction 65
Fluorescein Angiography Assessment 66
Clinical Data not Directly Related to Fluorescein Angiography 66
Synthesis Process and Deduction 66
Difficulties and Risks of Synthesis 66
Part V: Major Fluorescein Angiography Syndromes
Chapter 10: Diabetic Retinopathy 71
Classification 71

Non-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy 72
Angiographic Lesions of Capillaries 72
Capillary Dilatations 72
Ischemic Capillary Lesions?Retinal Hypoxia 72
Microaneurysms 73
Intraretinal Microvascular Abnormalities (IRMA) 73
Perimacular Capillary Network Alterations 73
Hard Exudates 73
Quantification 73
Evolution 74
Ischemic Vascular Alterations Leading to Proliferative Retinopathy 78
Diabetic Maculopathy 78
Focal and Diffuse Edema 78
Cystoid Macular Edema 78
Serous Detachment 79
Ischemic Maculopathy 80
Proliferative Retinopathy 81
New Vessels 81
Chapter 11: Age-related Macular Degeneration and Other Macular Degenerations 84
Age-related Macular Degeneration 84
AMD: Idiopathic Polypoidal Vasculopathy 85
Other Macular Degenerations 96

Macular Pattern Dystrophy 96
Congenital or Hereditary Maculopathies Bull?s Eye Dystrophies 96
Stargardt Disease?Fundus Flavimaculatus 96
Chapter 12: Vascular Occlusions 101
Venous Occlusion 101
Evolution 101
Central Retinal Vein Occlusions 101
Retinal Vein Branch Occlusion 105
Artery Occlusion 109
Central Retinal Arterial Occlusion 109
Chapter 13: Retinal Epitheliopathies 111
Central Serous Chorioretinopathy 111
Chronic Epitheliopathy or Diffuse Retinal Pigment Epitheliopathy 111
Gravitational Epitheliopathies 111
Chapter 14: Vitreoretinal Interface Syndrome 117
Preretinal and Epiretinal Membrane 117
Macular Pucker 117
Chapter 15: Diagnosis of a Dark Area in the Fluorescein Angiography 119
Chapter 16: Inflammatory Disorders 124
Scattered Multifocal Choroiditis and White Dots Syndromes 124
Vasculitis 124
Frosted Branch Vasculitis 125
Index 131