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Problem Solving in Pediatric Imaging, 1st Edition

ISBN: 9781437726121
ISBN: 9781437726121
Διαστάσεις 28 × 22 cm



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Optimize diagnostic accuracy with Problem Solving in Pediatric Imaging, a new volume in the Problem Solving in Radiology series. This concise title offers quick, authoritative guidance from experienced radiologists who focus on the problematic conditions you’re likely to see—and how to reach an accurate diagnosis in an efficient manner.
Key Features
  • Addresses the practical aspects of pediatric imaging—perfect for practitioners, fellows, and senior level residents who may or may not specialize in pediatric radiology, but need to use and understand it.
  • Integrates problem-solving techniques throughout, addressing questions such as, “If I see this, what do I need to consider? What are my next steps?”
  • Presents content in a highly useful, real-world manner, with sections on conventional radiography in the ED, NICU, PICU, and CICU; fluoroscopy; body imaging; and neuroradiology.
  • Imaging findings are merged with clinical, anatomic, developmental, and molecular information to extract key diagnostic and therapeutic information.
  • Contains a section on special topics with chapters on radiation safety and quality assurance.
  • Features hundreds of high-quality color images and anatomic drawings that provide a clear picture of what to look for when interpreting studies. Illustrations conveying normal anatomy help you gain an in-depth perspective of each pathology.
  • Enhanced eBook version included with purchase. Your enhanced eBook allows you to access all of the text, figures, and references from the book on a variety of devices.
Author Information
By Sarah Sarvis Milla, MD, Professor and Chief of Pediatric Radiology, Children’s Hospital Colorado, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA and Shailee Lala, Associate Professor, Department of Radiology, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA


Instructions for online access
Cover image
Title page
Table of Contents
Section 1. Chest (Pulmonary/Cardiac)
Chapter 1. Imaging the Child With Respiratory Distress
Basic Chest Radiograph Interpretation
Differential Diagnosis of Respiratory Distress by Age
Chapter 2. Mediastinal Masses
How Do You Differentiate Mediastinal From Pulmonary Parenchymal Masses?
How Is the Mediastinum Subdivided?
What Normal Structures Occupy Each Compartment of the Mediastinum?
Anterior Mediastinum
Middle Mediastinum
Posterior Mediastinum
Chapter 3. Approach to Congenital Heart Disease
Segmental Approach to Congenital Heart Disease
Morphological Identification of the Major Cardiac Segments
Septal Defects
Select Outflow Tract Anomalies
Select Left Heart Lesions
Aortic Arch Anomalies
Section 2. Gastrointestinal
Chapter 4. Vomiting Infant
Bilious Vomiting
Nonbilious Vomiting
Imaging Techniques
Chapter 5. Pediatric Abdominal Pain
What Is the Role of Imaging in Abdominal Pain?
How to Approach the Abdominal Radiograph in Pediatrics
How to Describe the Overall Gas Pattern
Age-Based Differential Considerations
Common Diagnostic Etiologies for Abdominal Pain Across Age Groups
Chapter 6. Abdominal Masses in Children
How Should Abdominal Masses in the Pediatric Population Be Imaged?
How Should a Differential Diagnosis Be Approached?
Abdominal Masses in Neonates/Infants
Gastrointestinal Tract Masses
Miscellaneous Abdominal Masses
Abdominal Masses in Children Older Than 1 Year
Hepatic Masses: Hepatoblastoma, Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Undifferentiated Embryonal Sarcoma, and Angiosarcoma
Germ Cell Tumors
Section 3. Genitourinary
Chapter 7. Scrotal Pain and Swelling
Imaging Techniques
Ultrasound Examination Protocol
Diagnostic Workup
Image Interpretation
Chapter 8. Imaging Approach to Urinary Tract Dilation
How Do We Evaluate Urinary Tract Dilation?
Differential Diagnosis and Treatment
Chapter 9. Pelvic Pain
What Imaging Modality Is Best to Assess Pelvic Pain?
What to Do With an Ovarian Cyst?
When to Suspect Ovarian Torsion
What to Do With a Paraadnexal Cyst
Imperforate Hymen and Müllerian Duct Anomalies
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Ectopic Pregnancy
What to Do With Chronic Pelvic Pain
Pelvic Congestion
Section 4. MSK
Chapter 10. Imaging the Limping Child
What Imaging Modalities Are Useful for Working Up a Limp in a Pediatric Patient?
What Is the Utility of Radiographs?
What Is the Utility of Sonography?
Is There a Role for Bone Scans?
Is There a Role for Computed Tomography?
When to Consider Magnetic Resonance Imaging?
How Does the Patient’s Age Affect Imaging Workup?
How to Image a Child With Suspected Trauma
How to Image a Child With Suspected Infection
How to Approach a Child With No History of Trauma and No Signs of Infection
How to Approach a Child With Subacute or Chronic Limp
Does the Presence of Pain Help?
What Conditions Present With Pathological Fractures?
Chapter 11. Skeletal Dysplasias
Skeletal Dysplasias With Predominant Skull Involvement
Extremities: Dysplasias With Prominent Diaphyseal Involvement
Extremities: Dysplasias With Prominent Metaphyseal Involvement
Extremities: Dysplasias With Prominent Epiphyseal Involvement
Skeletal Dysplasias With Thoracic Involvement
Skeletal Dysplasias With Pelvic Involvement
Skeletal Dysplasias With Major Involvement of the Spine
Skeletal Dysplasias With Extraosseous Organ Involvement
Skeletal Dysplasias With Decreased Bone Mineral Density
Skeletal Dysplasias With Increased Bone Mineral Density
Mimickers of Skeletal Dysplasias
Chapter 12. Approach to Pediatric Foot
Laying the Groundwork
The Normal Foot: Lines and Positions to Know
Important Pathologies and Radiographic Findings
Chapter 13. Approach to Pediatric Elbow
Part 1: Imaging Basics
Part 2: Approach to the Pediatric Elbow Radiograph: FOOL Checklist
Part 3: Acute Pediatric Elbow Injuries
Part 4: Congenital and Posttraumatic Deformities Worth Mentioning
Part 5: Chronic Elbow Injuries in the Athletic Child
Chapter 14. Imaging Approach to Pediatric Bone Lesions
Systematic Approach
Patient Age
Host Bone
Host Bone Reaction
Single or Multiple Lesions
Chapter 15. Vascular Malformations
Imaging Vascular Malformations
Simple Vascular Malformations
Capillary Malformations
Lymphatic Malformations
Venous Malformations
Arteriovenous Malformations
Arteriovenous Fistulas
Combined Vascular Malformations
Anomalies of Major Named Vessels
Vascular Malformations Associated With Other Vascular Anomalies
Chapter 16. Approach to Pediatric Soft Tissue Masses
Why Imaging?
Who Needs Imaging?
Problem Solving: Which Modality? Which Protocol?
Articular/Periarticular Mass
Nerve or Nerve Sheath
Skin and Subcutaneous Fat
Chapter 17. MSK Trauma
Common Musculoskeletal Trauma Imaging Techniques
Pediatric Bone Anatomy
Particularly Pediatric Fractures
Pearls and Pitfalls
Section 5. General
Chapter 18. Imaging of the Neonate: Preterm Infant
Is This Neonate Preterm?
Lines and Tubes in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
Chapter 19. Imaging of the Neonate: Term Infant
Chapter 20. Abusive Head and Spinal Trauma
Abusive Head Trauma
Abusive Spine Trauma
Chapter 21. Child Abuse (Radiology)
Fractures Associated With Child Abuse and Fracture Dating
Soft Tissue Injuries in Child Abuse
Differential Diagnosis of Skeletal Injuries
Periostitis and Child Abuse
Chapter 22. Dose Optimization and Risk Management in Pediatric CT
Basics of Radiobiology and Risks of Ionizing Radiation
Fundamentals of CT Dosimetry
Dose and Image Quality Targets
CT Protocol Design
Advanced Topics
Automatic Exposure Control
What Is Iterative Reconstruction, and How Does It Compare With Filtered Backprojection?
Communicating Risk
Section 6. Fetal
Chapter 23. Fetal Body MRI
Why Fetal Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging?
When Should Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Be Performed?
How Is Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Performed?
Approach to Interpretation
Chapter 24. Fetal CNS MRI
Fetal Central Nervous System Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques
Fetal Central Nervous System: Normal Development
Posterior Fossa
Complication of Monochorionic Twin Pregnancy
Head and Neck
Section 7. Brain
Chapter 25. Pediatric Head CT
Computed Tomography Techniques and Radiation Awareness
Special Computed Tomography Examination Considerations
Key Imaging Questions
Section 8. Head and Neck
Chapter 26. Approach to Lateral Neck Radiographs
Approach to the Lateral Neck Radiograph
How to Read the Lateral View
Case Examples
Chapter 27. Pediatric Head and Neck Masses
Part 1: Ocular and Orbital Masses (Box 1)
Part 2: Sinonasal Masses (Box 2)
Part 3: Oral Cavity, Floor of Mouth, and Mandibular Masses (Box 3)
Part 4: Neck Masses (Box 4)
Section 9. Spine
Chapter 28. Imaging of the Pediatric Cervical Spine
Cervical Spine Developmental Anatomy and Normal Variants
Clearance of the Cervical Spine
Clinical Presentation of CSI
Diagnostic Imaging of CSI
Specific Cervical Spine Injuries
Ligamentous Injury
Atlantoaxial Rotary Subluxation
C1 Vertebra Fractures
C2 Vertebra Fractures
Subaxial C3–C7 Fractures
Predisposing Conditions to Cervical Spine Injury
Chapter 29. Neonatal Spine Imaging
Neonate With a Sacral Dimple
Neonate With a Non-Skin-Covered Bump/Lesion at the Back
Neonate With a Skin-Covered Bump/Lesion at the Back
Neonate With a Midline Fluid-Discharging Skin Pit
Neonate With Hypoplastic Lower Extremities
Neonate With a Congenital Caudal Tumor
Neonate With a “Duplicated” or Widened Spinal Canal
Neonate With a Focal Scoliosis or Hyperkyphosis
Additional Rare Spinal Abnormalities
Neonate With a Spinal Injury
Neonate With Nonaccidental Spinal Injury
Chapter 30. Imaging of Back Pain
Clinical Evaluation
Imaging Evaluation
Infectious Disorders
Neoplastic Disorders
Spinal Column Tumors
Intramedullary Tumors
Extramedullary Intradural Tumors